Certification, Standards & Norms
A: ISI mark is a certification mark for industrial products in India. The mark certifies that a product confirms to the Indian Standard, mentioned as IS:xxxx on top of the mark, developed by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), the national standards body of India. The ISI mark is by far the most recognized certification mark in the Indian subcontinent. The name ISI is an abbreviation of Indian Standards Institute, the former name of the Bureau of Indian Standards. The ISI mark is mandatory for certifying products to be sold in India, like many of the electrical appliances.
At Lapp, ÖLFLEX® 100 I, ÖLFLEX® UNIPLUS, ÖLFLEX® INFRA and ÖLFLEX® POWER LV are ISI certified products.
A: Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive
ROHS is the Directive on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment 2002/95/EC. The RoHS directive took effect on 1 July 2006, and is required to be enforced and become law in each member state. This directive restricts (with exceptions) the use of six hazardous materials in the manufacture of various types of electronic and electrical equipment. It is closely linked with the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive (WEEE) 2002/96/EC which sets collection, recycling and recovery targets for electrical goods and is part of a legislative initiative to solve the problem of huge amounts of toxic e-waste.
RoHS is often referred to (inaccurately) as the lead-free directive, but it restricts the use of the following six substances:
- Lead (Pb)
- Mercury (Hg)
- Cadmium (Cd)
- Hexavalent chromium (Cr6+)
- Polybrominated biphenyls (PBB)
- Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE)
PBB and PBDE are flame retardants used in several plastics. Hexavalent chromium is used in chrome plating, chromate coatings and primers, and in chromic acid.
The maximum permitted concentrations in non-exempt products are 0.1% or 1000 ppm (except for cadmium, which is limited to 0.01% or 100 ppm) by weight. The restrictions are on each homogeneous material in the product, which means that the limits do not apply to the weight of the finished product, or even to a component, but to any single substance that could (theoretically) be separated mechanically—for example, the sheath on a cable or the tinning on a component lead.
Everything that can be identified as a homogeneous material must meet the limit. So if it turns out that the case was made of plastic with 2,300 ppm (0.23%) PBB used as a flame retardant, then the entire radio would fail the requirements of the directive.
RoHS applies to these products in the EU whether made within the European Union(EU) or imported. Certain exemptions apply, and these are updated on occasion by the EU.
A: REACH is the European Community Regulation on chemicals and their safe use (EC 1907/2006). It deals with the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances. The aim of REACH is to improve the protection of human health and the environment through the better and earlier identification of the intrinsic properties of chemical substances. At the same time, REACH aims to enhance innovation and competitiveness of the EU chemicals industry. The REACH Regulation places greater responsibility on industry to manage the risks from chemicals and to provide safety information on the substances. Manufacturers and importers are required to gather information on the properties of their chemical substances, which will allow their safe handling, and to register the information in a central database.
A: No written confirmations or certificates are available to verify that our cables, wires and accessories comply with these regulations and guidelines. The abundance of specifications regarding hazardous substances and environmental protection systems is requiring manufacturers to produce ever increasing numbers of certifications to verify their compliance with legal regulations. For this reason, we have revised table T30 in the technical appendix of our main catalogue to ensure that all REACH, RoHS, Deca-BDE and PFOS matters are comprehensively covered.
Especially the international subject of REACH is constantly changing and undergoing permanent updates at our end. A summarised U.I. Lapp customer letter to be used for general REACH information purposes can be found at the following link: REACH Customer Information
Further information about REACH and RoHS is available at the following links:
A: Underwriters Laboratories Inc. is an independent non-profit organization that writes and tests products for safety and certifies them. UL has developed more than 800 standards for safety, and millions of products and their components are tested to ULs safety standards. If a product is UL listed, you know it has passed ULs stringent tests for electrical safety. The Canadian Standards Association (CSA) is a non-profit association serving business, industry, government and consumers in Canada and the global marketplace. Among many other activities, CSA develops standards that enhance public safety. A Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory, CSA is very familiar with U.S. requirements. According to OSHA regulations, the CSA-US Mark qualifies as an alternative to the UL Mark.
With this also refer Technical Table T-29-1 to T29-5 for more information.
A: Machine Tool Wire, or most commonly referred to as MTW, is a stranded flexible hook-up wire. MTW is used in control wiring for machine tools and in various other building applications. Although machine tool wire is qualified for many wiring applications it is a simply constructed wire that is made up of a highly stranded bare copper conductor. This high stranding of bare copper gives the wire its superior flexibility compared to that of THHN building wire. The bare copper conductor helps to keep the overall cost of the wire down as opposed to its sister Thermoplastic Equipment Wire, or TEW that is made with tinned copper conductors. The jacket compound on MTW is usually a tough durable Polyvinyl chloride (PVC). This compound allows the cable to be heat, moisture, and oil-resistant.
With this also refer Technical Table T-29-1 to T29-5 for more information.
A: Harmonised Cables, commonly known as HAR Cables, conform to a European Harmonisation Standard, have a single system of designation code and are manufactured following specifications and standards outlined by the European CENELEC harmonisation scheme. The norms HAR Cables abide by are outlined in harmonisation documents HD 361 and DIN VDE 0292.
Why are Harmonised Cables manufactured?
For companies trading across the continent, using cables with a HAR certification mark promotes safety and consistency. Manufacturing HAR Cables promotes the free European market and widens project scope for Pan European companies. Buying cable becomes easier with unique specifications and unique codes.
Which industries use Harmonised Cables?
HAR Cables are used in a range of industries including Automation and Process Control, Building and Construction and Rail and Transport.
Harmonised Cables are suitable for various environments, from industrial conditions to domestic.
For example, H07BN4-F Cable is mostly used in industrial environments where good flexibility and resistance to mechanical abrasion are required, while H05BN4-F is used in households, kitchen and office apparatus.
Which countries recognise the HAR mark?
The countries participating in the HAR scheme are the following: Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, the United Kingdom, Finland, The Netherlands, Sweden, Austria, Denmark, Ireland, Norway, Greece, Portugal, Switzerland, Spain and Hungary.
How to interpret the harmonised codes?
HAR Cable codes can be divided in three parts. Each of them containing subsections:
- The first part deals with the full compliance of the cable with CENELEC common rules and nominal voltage
- The second part focuses on the design be it the insulating and sheathing material or design features and conductor type
- The third part indicates the number of cores and the nominal cross section(s) of conductors
For example, H07RN-F cable could be broken down as follows:
- Part One - H07RNF is a Harmonised cable (H) with 450/750V voltage rating (07)
- Part Two - H07RNF is EPR insulated (R) with a PCP sheath (N)
- Part Three - H07RNF has a Class 5 flexible conductor (F)
How can HAR Cables be identified?
HAR Cables carry the HAR certification mark on their sheath.
HAR Cables conforming to other norms cannot carry their logos on the sheath. However, the other logos can be displayed on the packaging or in the User’s Manual and Installation Guide.
A: ASTM D2843 is the standard test method for density of smoke from the burning or decomposition of plastics.
Tests made on a material under conditions herein prescribed are of considerable value in comparing the relative smoke obscuration characteristics of plastics.
This test method serves to determine the extent to which plastic materials are likely to smoke under conditions of active burning and decomposition in the presence of flame.
Note - The visual and instrumental observations from this test compare well with the visual observations of the smoke generated by plastic materials when added to a freely burning large outdoor fire.
The usefulness of this test procedure is in its ability to measure the amount of smoke obscuration produced in a simple, direct, and meaningful manner under the specified conditions. The degree of obscuration of vision by smoke generated by combustibles is known to be affected by changes in quantity and form of material, humidity, draft, temperature, and oxygen supply.
1.1 This fire-test-response test method covers a laboratory procedure for measuring and observing the relative amounts of smoke obscuration produced by the burning or decomposition of plastics. It is intended to be used for measuring the smoke-producing characteristics of plastics under controlled conditions of combustion or decomposition. Correlation with other fire conditions is not implied. The measurements are made in terms of the loss of light transmission through a collected volume of smoke produced under controlled, standardized conditions. The apparatus is constructed so that the flame and smoke is observable during the test.
1.2 During the course of combustion, gases or vapours, or both, are evolved that are potentially hazardous to personnel. Adequate precautions are taken to protect the operator.
1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information purposes only.
1.4 This standard is used to measure and describe the response of materials, products, or assemblies to heat and flame under controlled conditions, but does not by itself incorporate all factors required for fire hazard or fire risk assessment of the materials, products, or assemblies under actual fire conditions.
1.5 Fire testing is inherently hazardous. Adequate safeguards for personnel and property has tol be employed in conducting these tests. Specific safety warning statements are given in 1.2 and 9.11.
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
A: Selection of cables and wires for use in potentially explosive atmospheres according VDE 0165 part 1 version 05/2009 (EN 60079-14:2008).
Please find enclosed the answer.
A: The above flame resistance and fire propagation tests are often confused with one another on the basis of their very similar designations. However, the test methods employed are quite different.
IEC 60332-1-2: Test for vertical flame propagation for a single insulated wire/cable
This flame resistance test is passed by most cables constructed of flame-retardant materials, e.g. PVC and chloroprene rubber, or materials with special flame-retardant additives such as PUR. In the test, a single core or cable with a length of approx. 60 cm is mounted vertically using two clamps, after which a pre-defined flame is applied to the bottom end for a period of 60 seconds (or 120 seconds in the case of cable diameters > 25 mm). The test is deemed passed if, after the flame has been removed, the burning cable extinguishes itself and the fire damage is at least 50 mm from the upper mounting clamp. It is irrelevant how long the cable burns before extinguishing itself.
IEC 60332-3: Test for vertical flame spread of vertically-mounted bunched wires/cables
This fire propagation test is also known as the "bundle fire test" and is generally only passed by specially developed cables and wires with highly flame-retardant insulation and sheath material. This includes cables such as the ÖLFLEX® CLASSIC 110 H and ÖLFLEX® PETRO C HFFR. In most cases, the flame resistance of the plastics used is greatly enhanced by the addition of aluminium or magnesium hydroxide. Multiple cables are bundled or layered in lengths of approx. 3.5 m and vertically affixed to a ladder-like metal structure, after which a flame is applied to the lower end of the cables using a propane burner. The cable volume and time of flame application is defined by the test method, since IEC 60332-3 comprises four different bundle fire tests:
- IEC 60332-3-22 Category A: 7 litres of combustible material per metre / flame application: 40 minutes
- IEC 60332-3-23 Category B: 3.5 litres of combustible material per metre / flame application: 40 minutes
- IEC 60332-3-24 Category C: 1.5 litres of combustible material per metre / flame application: 20 minutes / cable diameter > 12.0 mm
- IEC 60332-3-25 Category D: 0.5 litres of combustible material per metre / flame application: 20 minutes / cable diameter< 12.0 mm
The test most frequently performed with our highly flame-retardant ÖLFLEX® cables is IEC 60332-3-24 Category C. IEC 60332-2-22 Category A is often used for maritime applications on oil rigs and ships, for example. The test is deemed passed if, after the burner has been switched off, the burning cables extinguish themselves and the fire damage does not cover more than 2.5 m measured from the bottom cable end. It is impossible to say which of the four test categories poses the most difficult challenge, since there are a range of different factors to consider.
IEC 60331: Functional integrity and fire resistance of electric cables
Unlike IEC 60332-1-2 and IEC 60332-3, this test does not assess the flame propagation but instead checks the electrical functioning of the cable in the event of a fire. In the test, a flame is applied across the entire horizontal length of a single, 120 cm cable for a period of 90 minutes. The test is deemed passed, if the cable continues to conduct electricity without shorting throughout the 90 minute flame application and for a subsequent 15 minute cooling period. This test is generally only passed by cables and wires with special, flame-retardant glass or mica wrapping enclosing the individual cores as well as the entire cable bundle.
A: INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS
- IEC 60332 standards (Tests on electric cables under fire conditions) establish the benchmark in procedures testing non-flame spread in cables. There are several designations depending on the degree of flame resistance.
- IEC 60332-1 & IEC 60332-2: No flame spread to a greater or lesser degree
- IEC 60332-3 No fire propagation
- In each test, simulation protocols are different:
IEC 60332-1 Vertical Flame Test
IEC 60332-3 Vertical Tray Flame Test
To check fire resistance, IEC 60331 standards apply, with different variations depending on the type of cable being tested.
Two parameters are mainly considered: combustion gas toxicity and smoke density produced.
IEC 60754-1 (amount of halogen acid gas) and IEC60754-2 (acidity of gases evolved during combustion) standards provide for calling a cable “Halogen Free” or “Zero Halogen”.
IEC 61034-1 and 61034-2 are used to measure opacity and thereby establish the “Low Smoke” characteristic.
All these standards have substantial equivalents in Europe.
In France, regulations require fulfilling customer specifications who have chosen to comply with NF C 32 070. Cables are rated according to their resistance to flame:
Category / Rating
C3: Non-fire rated
C2: Flame retardant
C1: Fire retardant
CR1: Fire resistant
A: The CCC certificate (China Compulsory Certificate "3C") was introduced in 2002 on the basis of legal directives and regulations of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and applies to both imported and Chinese made products. Products requiring certification can only be imported into China, sold in China or used in Chinese business activities after the relevant CCC certification has been requested and granted. As to whether CCC certification is required for a specific product or product group, this depends on whether the relevant product is assigned to one of the product groups which the PRC has deemed subject to certification.
When imported to China as individual components – that is, provided separately rather than as part of a machine or system – Lapp cables and wires are subject to CCC certification, provided they are not part of an exception or exemption. Harmonised cables also require CCC identification. According to the labelling regulations, the manufacturer must be identifiable. Harmonised ÖLFLEX® cables with CCC identification are produced in separate plants.
Products of the Lapp catalogue for final use in China which may not be exported due to missing CCC certification:
- H05V-K, H07V-K, H05RR-F, H05RN-F, H07RN-F, H07RN8-F, H07ZZ-F, H01N2-D
- ÖLFLEX® 140 / 140 CY, 150 / 150 CY QUATTRO
- ÖLFLEX® 550 P (H05BQ-F, H07BQ-F)
- Miscellaneous <HAR> certified cables or single cores
Other cables that do not meet any IEC/HAR standard are still subject to the exemption regulation. These products are registered with the Chinese customs authorities and are identified on the basis of a self-declaration issued by the importer in conjunction with the catalogue and data sheet. The CCC exemption applications provided on the Intranet can be used to facilitate the import process. These applications do not act as certificates, but merely declare that the specified cable products are subject to CCC regulations. Applications must contain the following:
- The English-language catalogue page with the description and product image
- A declaration form for the relevant Chinese import authority (Shanghai) "Inspection & Quarantine Bureau"
- The "previous exemption certificate" (if available) to support the content of the declaration form. This (previous) exemption certificate is no longer a general requirement of the procedure, but is still useful for verification purposes.
Whether a previous CCC declaration for a cable is available you can check here.
Further information about the import of cables and wires into China is available at the following links: